An intrinsic calculation for Yara International ASA (OB: YAR) suggests it is 41% undervalued
Today we are going to review a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of Yara International ASA (OB: YAR) as an investment opportunity by taking expected future cash flows and discounting them at their current value. To this end, we will take advantage of the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Believe it or not, it’s not too hard to follow, as you will see in our example!
We draw your attention to the fact that there are many ways to assess a business and, like DCF, each technique has advantages and disadvantages in certain scenarios. For those who are passionate about equity analysis, the Simply Wall St analysis template here may be something of interest to you.
See our latest review for Yara International
We use what is called a two-step model, which simply means that we have two different periods of growth rate for the cash flow of the business. Usually, the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth stage. First, we need to estimate the cash flow of the business over the next ten years. Where possible, we use analyst estimates, but when these are not available, we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or stated value. We assume that companies with decreasing free cash flow will slow their rate of contraction, and companies with increasing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow during this period. We do this to reflect the fact that growth tends to slow down more in the early years than in subsequent years.
In general, we assume that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, so we discount the value of these future cash flows to their estimated value in today’s dollars:
10-year free cash flow (FCF) forecast
|Leverage FCF ($, Millions)||US $ 1.14 billion||US $ 1.22 billion||US $ 1.09 billion||US $ 1.11 billion||US $ 1.10 billion||US $ 1.09 billion||US $ 1.09 billion||US $ 1.10 billion||US $ 1.11 billion||US $ 1.11 billion|
|Source of estimated growth rate||Analyst x6||Analyst x6||Analyst x1||Analyst x1||Is @ -1.03%||East @ -0.37%||Is 0.08%||Is @ 0.4%||East @ 0.63%||East @ 0.78%|
|Present value (in millions of dollars) discounted at 6.0%||US $ 1.1k||US $ 1.1k||US $ 912||US $ 877||$ 819||US $ 769||US $ 726||$ 688||US $ 653||US $ 620|
(“East” = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
10-year present value of cash flows (PVCF) = US $ 8.2 billion
After calculating the present value of future cash flows over the initial 10 year period, we need to calculate the terminal value, which takes into account all future cash flows beyond the first step. For a number of reasons, a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country’s GDP growth. In this case, we used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (1.2%) to estimate future growth. Similar to the 10-year “growth” period, we discount future cash flows to their present value, using a cost of equity of 6.0%.
Terminal value (TV)= FCF2031 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = US $ 1.1 billion × (1 + 1.2%) ÷ (6.0% to 1.2%) = US $ 23 billion
Present value of terminal value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)ten= US $ 23 billion ÷ (1 + 6.0%)ten= US $ 13 billion
Total value, or net worth, is then the sum of the present value of future cash flows, which in this case is US $ 21 billion. The last step is then to divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of 441 kroner, the company appears to be quite undervalued with a 41% discount from the current share price. Remember, however, that this is only a rough estimate, and like any complex formula – trash in, trash out.
The above calculation is very dependent on two assumptions. One is the discount rate and the other is the cash flow. Part of investing is coming up with your own assessment of a company’s future performance, so try the math yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not take into account the possible cyclicality of an industry or the future capital needs of a company, so it does not give a full picture of a company’s potential performance. Since we view Yara International as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which takes into account debt. In this calculation, we used 6.0%, which is based on a leveraged beta of 1.116. Beta is a measure of the volatility of a stock relative to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of comparable companies globally, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable company.
Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it shouldn’t be the only metric you look at when researching a business. The DCF model is not a perfect stock assessment tool. Instead, the best use of a DCF model is to test certain assumptions and theories to see if they would lead to undervaluation or overvaluation of the company. For example, changes in the company’s cost of equity or the risk-free rate can have a significant impact on valuation. Can we understand why the company trades at a discount to its intrinsic value? For Yara International, we’ve put together three relevant things you should consider:
- Risks: We think you should evaluate the 3 warning signs for Yara International we reported before making an investment in the business.
- Management: Have insiders increased their stocks to take advantage of market sentiment about YAR’s future prospects? Check out our management and board analysis with information on CEO compensation and governance factors.
- Other strong companies: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid trading fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!
PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every Norwegian stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.
This Simply Wall St article is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts using only unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell shares and does not take into account your goals or your financial situation. Our aim is to bring you long-term, targeted analysis based on fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not take into account the latest announcements from price sensitive companies or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in the mentioned stocks.
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