A look at the intrinsic value of PUMA SE (ETR: PUM)
Does the July price of the PUMA SE (ETR: PUM) share reflect its true value? Today we’re going to estimate the intrinsic value of the stock by taking expected future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. We will use the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model on this occasion. Don’t be put off by the lingo, the math is actually pretty straightforward.
We generally think of a business’s value as the present value of all the cash it will generate in the future. However, a DCF is only one evaluation measure among many, and it is not without its flaws. For those who are passionate about equity analysis, the Simply Wall St analysis template here may be of interest to you.
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We use the 2-step growth model, which simply means that we take into account two stages of business growth. In the initial period, the business can have a higher growth rate, and the second stage is usually assumed to have a stable growth rate. To begin with, we need to get cash flow estimates for the next ten years. Where possible, we use analyst estimates, but when these are not available, we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or stated value. We assume that companies with decreasing free cash flow will slow their rate of contraction, and companies with increasing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow during this period. We do this to reflect the fact that growth tends to slow down more in the early years than in subsequent years.
In general, we assume that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, so we discount the value of these future cash flows to their estimated value in today’s dollars:
10-year Free Cash Flow (FCF) estimate
|Leverage FCF (€, Millions)||441.1 M €||€ 494.6m||€ 549.5m||€ 706.0m||€ 782.6 million||842.1 M €||€ 887.0 M||€ 920.1m||€ 944.1 million||961.4 M €|
|Source of estimated growth rate||Analyst x16||Analyst x14||Analyst x2||Analyst x1||Est @ 10.86%||East @ 7.6%||East @ 5.32%||East @ 3.73%||East @ 2.61%||East @ 1.83%|
|Present value (€, Millions) discounted at 5.0%||€ 420||€ 448||€ 474||€ 580||€ 613||€ 628||€ 629||€ 622||€ 607||€ 589|
(“East” = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
10-year present value of cash flows (PVCF) = € 5.6bn
After calculating the present value of future cash flows over the initial 10 year period, we need to calculate the terminal value, which takes into account all future cash flows beyond the first step. The Gordon growth formula is used to calculate the terminal value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield of 0.01%. We discount the terminal cash flows to their present value at a cost of equity of 5.0%.
Terminal value (TV)= FCF2031 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = € 961m × (1 + 0.01%) ÷ (5.0% – 0.01%) = € 19bn
Present value of terminal value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)ten= € 19bn ÷ (1 + 5.0%)ten= € 12bn
The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of future cash flows, which in this case is € 17bn. In the last step, we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of 105 €, the company appears at fair value with a discount of 9.8% compared to the current share price. Ratings are imprecise instruments, however, much like a telescope – move a few degrees and end up in another galaxy. Keep this in mind.
The above calculation is very dependent on two assumptions. One is the discount rate and the other is cash flow. You don’t have to agree with these entries, I recommend that you redo the calculations yourself and play with them. The DCF also does not take into account the possible cyclicality of an industry or the future capital needs of a company, so it does not give a complete picture of a company’s potential performance. Since we view PUMA as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which takes debt into account. In this calculation, we used 5.0%, which is based on a leveraged beta of 1.062. Beta is a measure of the volatility of a stock relative to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta from globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.
While important, calculating DCF shouldn’t be the only metric you look at when looking for a business. It is not possible to achieve a rock-solid valuation with a DCF model. Preferably, you would apply different cases and assumptions and see their impact on the valuation of the business. For example, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically change the overall result. For PUMA, we’ve compiled three relevant things you should explore:
- Financial health: Does PUM have a healthy balance sheet? Take a look at our free balance sheet analysis with six simple checks on key factors like leverage and risk.
- Future benefits: How does PUM’s growth rate compare to that of its peers and the broader market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus count for years to come by interacting with our free analyst growth expectations chart.
- Other high quality alternatives: Do you like a good all-rounder? Explore our interactive list of high-quality stocks to get a feel for what you might be missing!
PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every German stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of another stock just search here.
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This Simply Wall St article is general in nature. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell shares and does not take into account your goals or your financial situation. Our aim is to bring you long-term, targeted analysis based on fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not take into account the latest announcements from price sensitive companies or qualitative documents. Simply Wall St has no position in the mentioned stocks.
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